Journal Articles

Ward N, Bekessy SA, Garrard GE et al. (Accepted) “Totemic species” can be an effective lens for engaging students with Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Science & Practice.

Croeser T, Garrard GE, Visintin C, Kirk H, Ossola A, Furlong C, Clements R, Butt A, Taylor E & Bekessy SA (2022) Finding space for nature in cities: the considerable potential of redundant car parking. npj Urban Sustainability, 2:27.

Gregg EA, Kidd LR, Bekessy SA, Martin JK, Robinson, JA & Garrard GE (2022) Ethical considerations for conservation messaging research and practice. People and Nature.

Garnett ST, Maurer G & Garrard GE (2022) Why Australian common bird names should respond to societal change. Emu – Austral Ornithology.

Stanford HR, Garrard GE, Kirk H & Hurley J (2022) A social-ecological framework for identifying and governing informal greenspaces in cities. Landscape & Urban Planning.

Hauser CE, Giljohann KM, McCarthy MA, Garrard GE, Robinson AP, Williams NSW & Moore JL (2022) A detection experiment that characterizes target-background interactions in plant surveys. Conservation Biology.

Hemming V, Camaclang AE, Adams M, Burgman M, Carbeck K, Carwardine J, Chades I, Chalifour L, Converse SJ, Davidson LNK, Garrard GE, Finn R, Fleri JR, Huard J, Mayfield HJ, McDonald-Madden E, Naujokaitis-Lewis I, Possingham HP, Rumpff L, Runge MC, Stewart D, Tulloch VJD, Walshe T, Martin TG (2021) An introduction to decision science for conservation. Conservation Biology.

Selinske MJ, Bekessy SA, Geary WL, Faulkner R, Hames F, Fletcher C, Squires ZE & Garrard GE (2021) Projecting the biodiversity benefits of conservation behavior change programs. Conservation Biology.

Croeser T, Garrard GE, Sharma S, Ossola A & Bekessy SA (2021) Choosing the right nature-based solutions to meet diverse urban challenges. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 65:127337.

Gregg EA, Kusmanoff AF, Garrard GE, Kidd LR & Bekessy SA (2021) Biodiversity conservation cannot afford COVID-19 communication bungles. Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

Croeser T, Garrard GE, Thomas FM, Duc TT, Mell I, Clement S & Bekessy SA (2021) Diagnosing delivery capabilities on a large international nature-based solutions project. njp Urban Sustainability, 1: 32.

Kirk H, Garrard GE, Croeser T, Backstrom A, Berthon K, Furlong C, Hurley J, Thomas FM, Webb A & Bekessy SA (2021) Building biodiversity into the urban fabric: A case study in applying Biodiversity Sensitive Urban Design (BSUD). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 62:127176.

Oke C, Bekessy SA, Frantzeskaki N, Bush J, Fitzsimons J, Garrard GE, Grenfell M, Harrison L, Hartigan M, Callow D, Cotter B & Gawler S (2021) Cities should respond to the biodiversity extinction crisis. npj Urban Sustainability, 1:11

Driscoll D, Garrard GE, Kusmanoff AM, Dovers S, Maron M, Preece N, Ritchie EG (2020) Consequences of information suppression in ecological and conservation sciences. Conservation Letters.

Garrard GE, Kusmanoff AM, Faulkner R, Samarasekara C, Gordon A, Johnstone A, Peterson IR, Torabi N, Wang Y & Bekessy SA (2020) Understanding Australia’s national feral cat control effort. Wildlife Research. Online Early:

Selinske MJ, Garrard GE, Gregg EA, Kusmanoff AM, Kidd LR, Cullen MT, Cooper M, Geary WL, Hatty M, Hames F, Kneebone S, McLeod EM, Ritchie EG, Squires ZE, Thomas J, Willcock MAW, Blair S & Bekessy SA (2020) Identifying and prioritizing human behaviors that benefit biodiversity. Conservation Science & Practice.

Gregg EA, Bekessy SA, Martin JK & Garrard GE (2020) Many IUCN Red List species have names that evoke negative emotions. Human Dimensions of Wildlife.

Selinske MJ, Fidler F, Gordon A, Garrard GE, Kusmanoff AM, Bekessy SA (2020) We have a steak in it: eliciting interventions to reduce beef consumption and its impact on biodiversity. Conservation Letters.

Kusmanoff AM, Fidler F, Gordon A, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA (2020) Five lessons to guide more effective conservation message framing. Conservation Biology.

Sinclair SJ, Zamin TJ, Gibson-Roy P, Dorrough J, Wong N, Craigie V, Garrard GE & Moore JL (2019) A state-and-transition model to guide grassland management. Australian Journal of Botany. 67: 437-453.

Steven R, Barnes M, Garnett S, Garrard GE, O’Connor J, Oliver J, Robinson C, Tulloch A, Fuller R (2019) Aligning citizen science with best practice: Threatened species conservation in Australia. Conservation Science and Practice. e100

Kidd LR, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, Mills M, Camilleri AR, Fidler F, Fielding KS, Gordon A, Gregg EA, Kusmanoff AM, Louis W, Moon K, Robinson JA, Selinske MJ, Shanahan D & Adams VM. (2019) Messaging matters: A systematic review of the conservation messaging literature. Biological Conservation. 236: 92-99.

Kidd LR, Bekessy SA, Garrard GE (2019) Neither hope nor fear: Evidence should drive conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 34: 278-282.

Kidd LR, Bekessy SA, Garrard GE (2019). Evidence Is Key for Effective Biodiversity Communication. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 34: 693-694.

Mata L, Garrard GE, Fidler F, Ives CD, Maller M, Wilson J, Thomas F, Bekessy SA. (2019) Punching above their weight: The ecological and social benefits of pop-up parks. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 17: 341-347. doi:10.1002/fee.2060

Kidd LR, Gregg EA, Bekessy SA, Robinson JA & Garrard GE (2018) Tweeting for their lives: Visibility of threatened species on Twitter. Journal for Nature Conservation. 46: 106-109. Free link until Dec 5th 2018.

Selinske MJ, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, Kusmanoff AM, Gordon A, Fidler F. (2018) Revisiting the promise of conservation psychology. Conservation Biology. 32: 1464-1468. doi:10.1111/cobi.13106

Backstrom A, Garrard GE, Hobbs RJ & Bekessy SA (2018) Grappling with the social dimension of novel ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 16: 109-117. doi:10.1002/fee.1769.

Garrard GE, Williams NSG, Mata L, Thomas J & Bekessy SA (2017) Biodiversity sensitive urban design. Conservation Letters. 11: e12411.

Eilam E & Garrard GE (2017) Perception of space among children studying their local grasslands: Examining attitudes and behavioural intentions. Sustainability. 9: 1660.

Fraser H, Hauser CE, Rumpff L, Garrard GE and McCarthy MA (2017) Classifying animals into ecologically meaningful groups: a case study on woodland birds. Biological Conservation. 214: 184-194. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.07.006

Damiens FLP, Mumaw L, Backstrom A, Bekessy SA, Coffey B, Faulkner R, Garrard GE, Hardy MJ, Kusmanoff AM, Mata L, Rickards L, Selinske MJ, Torabi N and Gordon A (2017), Why Politics and Context Matter in Conservation Policy. Global Policy. doi:10.1111/1758-5899.12415

Mata L, Garrard GE, Kutt AS, Wintle BC, En Chee Y, Backstrom A, Bainbridge B, Urlus J, Brown GW, Tolsma AD, Yen AL, New TR, Bekessy SA. (2017) Eliciting and integrating expert knowledge to assess the viability of the critically endangered golden sun-moth Synemon plana. Austral Ecology. 42: 297-308. doi:10.1111/aec.12431

Torabi N, Mata L, Gordon A, Garrard GE, Westcott W, Dettman P, Bekessy SA (2016) The money or the trees: what drives landholders’ participation in biodiverse carbon plantings? Global Ecology and Conservation. 7: 1-11.

Ives CI, Lentini PE, Threllfall CG, Ikin K, Shanahan DF, Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, Fuller RA, Mumaw L, Rayner L, Rowe R, Valentine LE, Kendal D (2016) Cities are hotspots for threatened species. Global Ecology and Biodiversity, 25: 117-126. doi: 10.1111/geb.12404

Fraser H, Garrard GE, Rumpff L, Hauser CE, & McCarthy MA (2015) Consequences of inconsistently classifying woodland birds. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 3: 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00083 

Garrard GE, Fidler F, Wintle BC, Chee YE & Bekessy SA (2015) Beyond advocacy: Making space for conservation scientists in public debate. Conservation Letters. 9: 208-212. doi: 10.1111/conl.12193

Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, McCarthy MA & Wintle BA (2015) Incorporating detectability into environmental impact assessment for threatened species. Conservation Biology, 29: 216–225. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12351

Kendal D, Hauser CE, Garrard GE, Jellinek S, Giljohann KM & Moore JL (2013) Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72296. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072296

Garrard GE, McCarthy MA, Williams NSG, Bekessy SA & Wintle BA (2013) A general model of detectability using species traits. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4: 45-52. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00257.x

McCarthy MA, Moore JL, Morris WK, Parris KM, Garrard GE, Vesk PA, Rumpff L, Giljohann K, Camac J, Bau SS, Friend T, Harrison B & Yue B (2012) The influence of abundance on detectability. Oikos, 122: 717–726. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20781.x

Garrard GE, McCarthy MA, Vesk PA, Radford JQ & Bennett AF (2012) A predictive model of avian natal dispersal distance provides prior information for investigating response to landscape change, Journal of Animal Ecology, 81: 14-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01891.x

McCarthy MA, Garrard GE, Moore AL, Parris KM, Regan TJ, and Ryan GE (2011) The SAFE index should not be used for prioritization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 486–487.  doi:

Garrard GE, Bekessy SA, McCarthy MA & Wintle BA (2008) When have we looked hard enough?  A novel method for setting minimum survey effort protocols for flora surveys. Austral Ecology, 33: 986-998.

Book Chapters

Garrard GE, Rumpff L, Runge MC & Converse SJ (2017) Rapid prototyping for decision structuring: an efficient approach to conservation decision analysis. In Bunnefeld N, Nicholson E & Milner-Gulland EJ (Eds) Decision-making in conservation and natural resource management: models for interdisciplinary approaches, Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781107465381.

Sharp S, Garrard GE & Wong N (2015) Planning, documenting and monitoring for grassland management. In Williams NSG, Marshall A & Morgan JW (Eds) Land of Sweeping Plains: Managing and restoring the native grasslands of south-eastern Australia, CSIRO Publishing. ISBN: 9781486300815.

Hauser CE, Garrard GE & Moore JL (2015) Estimating detection rates. In Jarrad et al. (Eds) Biosecurity surveillance: quantitative approaches, CABI Publishing, Wallingford. ISBN-13: 978-1780643595.

Garrard G and Bekessy S (2014) Landscapes and Land Use Planning. In Byrne, J. et al. (Eds) Australian Environmental Planning: Challenges and Future Prospects, Routledge. ISBN-13: 978-1138000711. Google book link.

Peer-reviewed Conference Proceedings

Hauser CE, Moore JL, Giljohann KM, Garrard GE & McCarthy MA (2012) Designing a detection experiment: tricks and trade-offs. In Eldershaw, V. (ed). Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Weeds Conference. Weed Society of Victoria, October 2012, pp. 267—272.


Kusmanoff AM, Garrard GE, Jackson, S & Bekessy SA (2017) Understanding and planning for the environmental benefits of community engagement progmams. A report prepared for Parks Victoria. Available for download here.

Garrard GE, Faulkner R, Mata L, Torabi N, Peterson IR, Gordon A & Bekessy SA (2017) An assessment of the national effort towards feral cat control. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy. Available for download here.

Garrard G & Bekessy S (2017) Conservation Opportunities Research-Business Summit: Initial Report. NESP Threatened Species Recovery Hub. Available for download here.

Mata L, Ives CD, Morán-Ordóñez A, Garrard GE, Gordon A, Cranney K, Smith TR, Backstrom A, Bickel DJ, Hahs AK, Malipatil M, Moir ML, Plein M, Porch N, Semeraro L, Walker K, Vesk PA, Parris KM, Bekessy SA. (2016) The Little Things that Run the City – Insect ecology, biodiversity and conservation in the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne.

Mata L, Garrard GE, Hahs AK, Bolitho J, Chambers L, Clemann N, Faulkner R, Foster J, Harris GJ, Kutt A, McMaster D, McMullan-Fisher S, Menkhorst P, Read C, Sinclair S, Sparks D, Stajsic V, Tsyrlin E, West M, Parris K, Bekessy SA. (2016) Target species for rewilding, monitoring and public engagement in the City of Melbourne. Report prepared for the City of Melbourne’s Urban Sustainability Branch.

Garrard G, Bekessy B, Amati M, Ednie-Brown P & Baracco M (2015) Linking ecology and architecture: Re-enchanting people with nature in better built environments. RMIT University, Melbourne. Available for download here.

Mata L, Ives CD, Garrard GE, Gordon A, Backstrom A, Cranney K, Smith TR, Stark L, Bickel DB, Cunningham S, Hahs AK, Hochuli D, Malipatil M, Moir M, Plein M, Porch N, Semeraro L, Standish R, Walker K, Vesk PA, Parris K, Bekessy SA. (2015) The Little Things that Run the City: How do Melbourne’s green spaces support insect biodiversity and ecosystem health? Report prepared for the City of Melbourne. For the high-resolution version click here.

Garrard GE. & Wintle BA (2011) Minimum survey effort requirements for impact assessments under the EPBC Act 1999: A review of methods for estimating and managing detectability in biological surveys,  A Report to the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Populations and Communities (SEWPaC).

Garrard GE, Bekessy SA & Wintle BA. (2009) Determining necessary survey effort to detect invasive weeds in native vegetation communities, Australian Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis Project 0906.


Garrard GE, Fidler F, Wintle BC, Chee YE, Bekessy SA (2016) Debunking some common myths to create more space for scientists in public debate. Ecological Society of Australia Bulletin, 46(3):6-7.

Garrard GE & Bekessy SA (2016) Ecocheck: Victoria’s flower-strewn western plains could be swamped by development. The Conversation, 17 May.

Fraser, H, Garrard GE, Rumpff L, Hauser CE and McCarthy MA (2016) What’s in a name? The consequences of inconsistently classifying woodland birds (and other terms). Decision Point, 94, 6-7.

Garrard G, Bekessy S & van Wijnen S (2015) Sustainable mid-rise for healthy, connected communities. Planning News, 41, 6-7.

Garrard G (2015) Detectability, threatened species & environmental impact assessment, Decision Point, 92, 4-5.

Garrard G, Bekessy S & Wintle B (2015) Offset policies don’t work, Decision Point, 91, 12-13.

McCarthy M, Garrard G & Rumpff L (2015) The alpine grazing debate was never about science, The Conversation, 16 April.

Garrard G (2013) Detecting species without species-specific guides: A new, trait-based model of detectability, Decision Point, 66, 8-9.

Garrard G & Rumpff L (2011) Science the loser in Victoria’s alpine grazing trial, The Conversation, 24 March.

Garrard G (2009) How hard do we need to look to find threatened species? Decision Point, 34, 3-5.

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